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Himachal Pradesh

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Shimla - Kullu - Manali

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A tourist taking photographs and video at archaeological site

Backpacking tourists in Vienna
Tourism is travel for pleasure; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveler's country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only ", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".

Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Today, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases being of vital importance.

Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, and the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus,but slowly recovered. International tourism receipts (the travel item in the balance of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2011, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012,the same year in which China became the largest spender in international tourism globally with US$102 billion, surpassing Germany and United States. China and emerging markets such as Russia and Brazil had significantly increased their spending over the previous decade.

William F. Theobald (1994) suggested that "etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, 'tornare' and the Greek, 'tornos', meaning 'a lathe or circle; movement around a central point or axis'. This meaning has changed in modern English to represent 'one's turn'. The suffix –ism is defined as 'an action or process; typical behaviour or quality', while the suffix, –ist denotes 'one who performs a given action'. When the word tour and the suffixes –ism and –ist are combined, they suggest the action of moving in a circle. Describing a circle implies returning to one's starting point, so a tour is a round-trip journey, i.e. the act of leaving and ultimately returning to the original starting point. Therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist."

Today, three schools discuss the roots of 'tourism'. The French School, led by A. Houlot, argues that the term 'tourism' comes from the old Aramaic Tur, which was used for the exploration and movement of people in the Bible. This word was used for the first time when Moses began his expedition to the lands of Canaán. Another school of thought, the Onomastic School, considers the origin of the concept not from a linguistic perspective but rather links it to the last name of the French aristocrat Della Tour. According to this school, after Carlos V signed a treaty with England in 1516, in celebration of this event, the future king gave the Della Tour family exclusive rights to conduct commercial transport and related businesses. A third school focuses on the Anglo-Saxon world, and scrutinises Theobald´s thesis. Surmising that the roots of the word 'tourism' lie in the ancient Anglo-Saxon term Torn, these scholars have found evidence that the term was coined in the 12th century by farmers to denote travel with an intention to return. Over the centuries, the meaning of the word has shifted. By the middle of the 18th century, English noblemen used the term 'turn' to refer to trips undertaken for education and cultural exploration. In reality, the purpose of the noblemen’s trips to the different parts of the kingdom was to acquire knowledge that was later useful for governing.

It is the world's biggest employer and rakes in foreign exchange by the millions. Yet the Tourism industry in our country manages to attract only a miniscule percentage of the world tourist traffic. The reasons are obvious, and Andhra Pradesh has not been able to buck this trend.

As one of the countries that has been targeted for repeated conquests, India has continued to represent a place,much sought after, for its diversity. Andhra Pradesh, has over the years been a home to an amalgamation of cultures, from the Bahmanis to the Asaf Jahis. The state has been on the tourist map, due to its strategic location dotted by numerous tourist spots.

The state capital Hyderabad, has naturally been the pivot from which the tourist traffic is generated. It's from here that the tourists move to other parts of the state. Rail, road and air connectivity with the city is pretty decent, and will see a remarkable improvement with the setting up of a new international airport and the completion of the golden quadrilateral.

Infrastructure, especially roads connecting interiors are quite poor and this for long, has been impeding tourists from extending their itinerary to other locations. 

The tourism department on its part is setting up quality accommodation through the 'Punnami' chain of hotels, and this has helped people, especially those visiting temple towns, to stay over for an extra day. A large part of the domestic tourism to the state, travels to religious destinations like Tirupati, Simhachalam,Bhadrachalam, Annavaram and Basra among others.

On the other hand, the growth of international tourists to the state is still a blip in the horizon. Goa and Kerala continue to be the major destinations for international tourists and Andhra Pradesh will have to use a unique selling proposition to hook these tourists. Buddhism is one of the aspects which can be developed, in an effort to rope in substantial number of tourists who travel from Japan and other far eastern countries.

For this, the state needs to invest in its marketing efforts and build a brand image which enables top of the mind recall. It will need to translate concept and plans into reality, so that tourists can seamlessly travel to various destinations. 

The Southern Splendour, the circular tourist train being planned to traverse the southern states, will ensure that tourists appreciate the tourist hot spots of Andhra Pradesh.

The Tourism department also needs to get the night bazaar concept in and around the Charminar area moving, and this would provide the fillip to big time, unhurried shopping. Convention tourism is big business in the far eastern countries and Hyderabad with its upcoming international convention center, can be positioned appropriately.

All in all, Andhra Pradesh has the potential to emerge as one of the country's tourist hot spots. To make that happen, a lot of effort needs to go into creating quality infrastructure, ensuring connectivity, building up awareness and brand building.

Tickets for entry to Taj Mahal are sold both over the counter as well as online.

"Union Tourism and Culture Minister Mahesh Sharma will hold a meeting with the officials this week to discuss various issues relating to tourists sites and the measures to enhance services," the source told PTI.

The Minister is likely to discuss issues such as security, ticketing and cleanliness in and around the tourist spots across the country, the source said.

The recent issue of 4,000 people not being able to buy tickets for Red Fort because of the huge rush on New Year's eve is also expected to come up for discussion during the meeting, according to the source.

Tourism is one of the areas that the Government is focusing on to shore up revenues as well generating employment.

As per the official data, foreign tourist arrivals (FTAs) were 71.03 lakh during January-November 2015, a growth of 4.5 per cent over 67.94 lakh during the corresponding period previous year.

Casino developments have created important contributions to the tourism industries in recent years (Wan, 2012). The numbers and capacities of casinos have rapidly grown in the Asia-Pacific region, including Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Cambodia, Myanmar, Philippines, Macau, and Singapore (Hsu, 2006, p. xix). Therefore, casino developments have become a highly profitable sector of the economy in these regions (Siu, 2007 and Siu, 2008). For instance, since the liberalization of casino licensing in 2002, gaming revenues in Macau reached a record high of $45.09 billion U.S. dollars in 2013 and the annual revenues of casino gambling in Singapore reached $4.1 billion U.S. dollars in 2013 (UNLV Center for Gaming Research, 2014a and UNLV Center for Gaming Research, 2014b). Moreover, the taxation of the casino industry has become a significant source of economic funds for Macau's government (Gu & Tam, 2011). Conversely, the unprecedented growth and expansion of the gambling industry have had many positive and negative economic, socio-cultural, and environmental impacts (Carmichael et al., 1996 and Lee and Back, 2006). Of these impacts, the positive benefits (such as increases in earned incomes, improvement of social welfare, and consummation of public facilities) and the negative outcomes (e.g. increase in the prices of goods, rise in crime rates, and expansion of various pollutants) are worth consideration because these events will directly or indirectly influence local residents to a certain degree.

Although issues relating to the impacts of casino gambling have been extensively examined in the context of Western countries (Garrett, 2004, Giacopassi et al., 1999, Janes and Collison, 2004 and Kang et al., 2008), few studies have compared similar ethnic populations from different sovereign regions in Asia. As McMillen indicated, “despite its apparent universality, the concept of gambling has no intrinsic meaning; rather, its meaning always depends on the socio-historical context in which it occurs” (McMillen, 1996, p. 6). Therefore, it should be valuable to prudently explore how local residents in Asian regions, particularly those with similar ethnic and cultural heritages, label meanings or viewpoints toward the universal developments of casino gambling. This manuscript attempts to provide an explorative examination of the social, economic, and environmental impacts of casino gambling in two Asian regions: Singapore and Macau. It is crucial for strategy makers in governmental departments, casino managers, and academic researchers that the pros and cons of casino developments are made clear because this would allow the development of accessible approaches while minimizing the potentially negative impacts (Wan, Li, & Kong, 2011).

Since the legalization of gaming in 1847, Macau has been the pioneer of the gaming industry in regard to Asian casinos (Wan, 2012). In 2002, the Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China opened the gaming market and has inducted new investors and business patterns, which has led to the creation of fresh elements and motives within the established gaming industry (Loi & Kim, 2010). Conversely, Singapore has been an up-and-coming market for the gaming industry: its first casino opened in 2010. Since its opening, the casinos in Singapore have immediately attracted a large crowd of visitors and have earned considerable tourism revenues (Kale & De, 2013). Macau and Singapore represent two different characters in the gaming business: the former has a long-term history of running the gaming industry, and the latter has just initiated its brand-new casino operations in recent years. These are also the only two places that are permitted to run legalized casino gambling in areas in which the majority of residents are of a Chinese ethnicity. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the following issues:

(1) What are the survey responders' perceptions toward the social, economic, and environmental impacts of the establishment of casino gambling?

(2) Do residents from Macau and Singapore have diverse viewpoints in relation to possible correlations between gambling behaviors and attitudes and the impacts of casino gambling operations?

Tourism, as a significant form of human activity, can have major impacts. These impacts are very visible in the destination region, where tourists interact with local environment, economy, culture and society. Hence, it is conventional to consider the impacts of tourism under the headings of socio-cultural, economic and environmental impacts.

According to Peter Mason's perspective of tourism impacts, the nature and dimension of the impacts of casino gambling may be conceptualized as follows: gambling (or gaming), as a culture-loaded but controversial human activity, can have major impacts. A casino, which is a place that legally allows people to engage in the activities of gambling and recreational consumption, can also directly and indirectly cause impacts. These impacts are somehow tangible and intangible in the host community, in which casino gamblers interact with the local environment, economy, and society.

The contemporary casino business is a unique industry that is concentrated in Las Vegas and Macau (Gu, 2004). In fact, certain researchers have defined the socio-economic networks that are formed by the gaming, resorts, shopping, and entertainment industries in Las Vegas and Macau as “casinopolitanism” (Luke, 2011). Although the gaming industry now provides distinguished product contents and contains service consumers from different market segments and with diverse lifestyles, it still satisfies the varied needs and desires of subjects in the same tourist locations (Hung, Lin, Yang, & Lu, 2012). Therefore, it is important to carefully examine the impacts and influences of casino gambling. After reviewing the related literature that discusses the influences of legalized casino gambling, most researchers have focused on the social, economic, and environmental spheres of influence and have explored people's pro-and-con opinions toward casino gambling (Caneday and Zeiger, 1991, Hsu, 2000, Lee and Back, 2003, Lee and Back, 2006, Long, 1996, Perdue et al., 1995 and Wan, 2012).


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